1 See, for example, letter to Eliza Butler, 25 September 1940, The Collected Letters of C.S. Lewis, Volume II, ed. Walter Hooper (London: HarperCollins, 2004), 445.
2 Hence the phrase ‘only imagination’ is always meant pejoratively in Lewis’s works. This independent imagination is his target when, for example, he opposes ‘faith and reason on one side and emotion and imagination on the other’ (Mere Christianity, 120).
3 C.S. Lewis, The Pilgrim’s Regress (Glasgow: Collins, 1980). 195.
4 ‘If ever the vastness of matter threatens to overcross our spirits, one must remember that it is matter spiritualized which does so. To puny man, the great nebula in Andromeda owes in a sense its greatness’. ‘Dogma and the Universe’, C.S. Lewis, Essay Collection, 121.
5 E.g., The Screwtape Letters (Glasgow: Collins, 1982), 37. Screwtape, the senior devil, advises Wormwood to evacuate his patient’s will and intellect of virtues, locating them entirely in his fantasy or imagination: ‘No amount of piety in his imagination and affections will harm us if we can keep it out of his will’ (70).
6 C.S. Lewis, Prayer: Letters to Malcolm (Glasgow: Collins, 1983), 87.
7 Lewis practised his theory of disciplining his imagination from young adulthood onwards. E.g., see his resolution not to let “things I really don’t believe in and vague possibilities haunt my imagination’. Diary entry for 26 January 1927, All My Road Before Me: The Diaries of C.S. Lewis, 1922–1927 (London: HarperCollins, 1993), 439.
8 C.S. Lewis, The Abolition of Man (Glasgow: Collins, 1984), 29.
9 C.S. Lewis, The Discarded Image (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1964), 158.
10 E.g., the epistemology which structures his approach in Mere Christianity (16), for instance, broadly reflects the categories of Rational, Sensitive and Vegetable Soul described in The Discarded Image, 152–65.
11 The Discarded Image, 158.
12 See, e.g., The Abolition of Man, 23, 28.
13 Miracles, 39; cf. The Discarded Image, 161.
14 Austin Farrer, ‘The Christian Apologist’, in Light on C.S. Lewis, ed. Jocelyn Gibb (London: Geoffrey Bles, 1965), 37.
15 Miracles 115–16.
16 The Four Loves, 116–28.
17 Bluspels and Flalansferes’, SLE, 265.
18 ‘Human thought is not God’s, but God-kindled’, Miracles, 33.
19 ‘Bluspels and Flalansferes’, SLE, 265.
20 ‘Man’s reason is in such deep insolvency to sense’. ‘Horrid Red Things’, C.S. Lewis, Essay Collection, 129. Lewis is quoting Robert Bridges’s The Testament of Beauty, I, 57.
21 ‘The Philosopher’, Collected Poems, ed. Walter Hooper (London: HarperCollins, 1994), 186–87.
22 Letter to Cecil Harwood, 28 October 1926, Collected Letters, Volume I, 670.
23 In this, Lewis’s last novel, there is a character called the Fox, a rational teacher, who comes to learn at the end of the story that mere reason is ‘glibness . . . a prattle of maxims . . . all thin and clear as water’. Till We Have Faces (Glasgow: Collins, 1985), 306.
24 ‘The Decline of Religion’, C.S. Lewis, Essay Collection, 182.
25 Letter to Brother George Every, 12 October 1940, Collected Letters, Volume II, 448.
26 ‘Letter to his brother, 24 October 1931, Collected Letters, Volume II, 7.
27 ‘Where thought is strictly rational it must be, in some odd sense, not ours, but cosmic or super-cosmic. It must be something not shut up inside our heads but already ‘out there’—in the universe or behind the universe . . . a rationality with which the universe has always been saturated’. ‘De Futilitate’, C.S. Lewis, Essay Collection, 676.
28 ‘I do not think the resemblance between the Christian and the merely imaginative experience is accidental. I think that all things, in their way, reflect heavenly truth, the imagination not least. “Reflect” is the important word. This lower life of the imagination is not [i.e. not necessarily and by its own nature: God can cause it to be] a beginning of nor a step towards, the higher life of the spirit, merely an image’. Surprised by Joy, 135–36.
29 Letter to T.S. Eliot, 2 June 1931, The Collected Letters of C.S. Lewis, Volume III, ed. Walter Hooper (London: HarperCollins, 2006), 1523.
30 See The Discarded Image, 70. It is not known how much of Karl Barth’s work Lewis read (he was not sure himself, see letter to Corbin Scott Carnell, 13 October 1958, Collected Letters, Volume III, 980), but his references to it are invariably unfriendly. He coined ‘Barthianism’ as a loose term to cover ‘a flattening out of all things into common insignificance before the inscrutable Creator’. English Literature in the Sixteenth Century, 449, 453. Cf. The Pilgrim’s Regress, 18; ‘Why I Am Not a Pacifist’, C.S. Lewis, Essay Collection, 292; letter to his brother, 18 February 1940, Collected Letters, Volume II, 350–52.
31 The Allegory of Love: A Study in Medieval Tradition (Oxford: Clarendon, 1936), 267.
32 I take it that those who read apologetic works and who are in need of their help may include many whose religious practice is already significantly developed.
33 Austin Farrer, ‘The Christian Apologist’, in Light on C.S. Lewis, 26.
34 See, e.g., Mere Christianity, 119–29; ‘Religion: Reality or Substitute?’, C.S. Lewis, Essay Collection, 131–37.
35 See, e.g., my ‘Escape to Wallaby Wood: Lewis’s Depictions of Conversion’, in C.S. Lewis, Lightbearer in the Shadowlands: The Evangelistic Vision of C.S. Lewis, ed. Angus J.L. Menuge (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1997), 143–67.
36 ‘The Decline of Religion’, C.S. Lewis, Essay Collection, 182.